> The Demak Kingdom - The Great Islamization in Java island

The Demak Kingdom – The Great Islamization on The Island of Java

The Demak Kingdom – the first Islamic Kingdom on The Island of Java

source: kompas.com

Indonesia is the country with the largest Muslim population in the world.

But if we look at history, Indonesia was once Hindu and Buddhist.

We can see this from the remains of temples scattered throughout the archipelago, especially the extraordinary temples on the island of Java, such as The Borobudur and Prambanan.

So why is Indonesia’s population the largest Muslim in the world?

There is a lot of history that we can learn, but in my article today, I am going to write about the Demak Kingdom or Demak Sultanate, which was the first Islamic kingdom on the island of Java.

The Demak Kingdom in Central Java

The Demak Kingdom or Demak Sultanate was the first Islamic kingdom in Java.

Founded in the early 16th century by Raden Patah, the kingdom flourished under the leadership of Sultan Trenggono.

The Demak Kingdom is located in the Demak region of Central Java. Originally, Demak was a duchy under the rule of Majapahit.

The kingdom of Demak became the center for the spread of Islam under the leadership of Raden Patah with the central role of Wali Songo.

The period of Raden Patah’s leadership was the initial phase of the development of Islamic teachings in Java.

The History of the Demak Kingdom

The history of the first Islamic kingdom in Indonesia began when Raden Patah, the son of the king of Brawijaya,

who was king of the Majapahit kingdom with a Chinese princess, embraced Islam.

As the king of Brawijaya grew older, Raden Patah, who had embraced Islam, took the opportunity to establish his own kingdom on the north coast of Java, in the Demak area.

Raden Patah was supported by Wali Songo, nine figures who spread Islam in Java.

One of the most influential Wali Songo was Sunan Ampel, who became Raden Patah’s teacher and father-in-law.

Sunan Ampel also helped Raden Patah with attacks from Majapahit, who still wanted to maintain their power.

The Heyday of Demak Kingdom

After Raden Patah died in 1518, the Kingdom was ruled by Adipati Unus, Raden Patah’s son.

Adipati Unus was famous for his bravery as a warlord and was nicknamed Prince Sabrang Lor.

While leading the Demak Kingdom, he was able to bring about great changes.

Especially in the maritime sector, the Demak Kingdom became one of the most respected Islamic kingdoms in the world.

In history, Adipati Unus led the second invasion of Malacca against the Portuguese in 1521. However, he died in the battle. The royal throne passed to his brother.

The Demak Kingdom flourished under the leadership of Sultan Trenggana (1521 – 1546), the brother of Adipati Unus.

As king of Demak, he was able to expand his territory into eastern and western Java.

In 1527, a joint Islamic army from Demak and Cirebon, led by Fatahillah on the orders of Sultan Trenggana, succeeded in driving the Portuguese from Sunda Kelapa.

The name of Sunda Kelapa was then changed to Jayakarta, meaning perfect victory. Jayakarta was later renamed Batavia and then Jakarta.

In its heyday, the Demak Kingdom controlled major ports such as Surabaya, Madura, Tuban, Semarang, Jepara, Cirebon, and Sunda Kelapa.

The interior duchies of Madiun, Kediri, Malang, Pati, and Pajang are also the main sources of agricultural and livestock commodities.

Javanese rice is an important commodity in the archipelago’s international trade.

Sultan Trenggono also built several mosques and towers as centers of worship and Islamic education.

One of the mosques he built was the Great Mosque of Demak, which has typical Javanese architecture with a multi-tiered roof.

This mosque also contains several historical objects, such as a wooden pulpit believed to have been made by Sunan Kalijaga, one of the Wali Songo.

Decline and Collapse

The decline and collapse of the Demak Kingdom began after the death of Sultan Trenggono in 1546 AD.

He died in a battle against the Blambangan kingdom in Panarukan, Situbondo, East Java

After the death of Sultan Trenggono, there was a power struggle between his sons and the other dukes.

Sunan Prawoto, son of Sultan Trenggono, ascended the throne as the next king of Demak.

However, he was killed by Arya Penangsang, the son of Prince Surowiyoto or Prince Sekar, who was his rival for the throne.

Arya Penangsang became the next king of Demak.

Arya Penangsang also faced resistance from Prince Hadiri or Prince Kalinyamat, the Duke of Jepara, who was Sultan Trenggono’s brother-in-law.

Prince Hadiri succeeded in defending Jepara from attacks by Arya Penangsang and established the Kalinyamat kingdom, which was independent of Demak.

Arya Penangsang was finally killed in 1554 AD by Ki Ageng Pemanahan, a subordinate of Prince Hadiwijaya or Jaka Tingkir, Duke of Pajang.

Ki Ageng Pemanahan stabbed Arya Penangsang with Kyai Satan Kober’s keris, which belonged to Arya Penangsang himself.

With the death of Arya Penangsang, the Demak Kingdom collapsed and was replaced by the Pajang Kingdom as the strongest Islamic kingdom in Java.

Ki Ageng Pemanahan and his descendants formed the Islamic kingdom of Mataram, which then split into two kingdoms, the Yogyakarta Sultanate and the Surakarta Kasunanan.

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